Like the ASJ and the ADJ, the magistrate handles criminal cases and the civil judge civil cases. The magistrate`s procedure is determined in accordance with the relevant sections, and the civil judge is referred to his financial jurisdiction as a civil case. Your decisions will later be challenged in the court of the Supplemental Session Judge or the Additional District Judge by the aggrieved party who is not satisfied with the decision or order. Let us now turn to the courts that are subordinate to the ASJ and the ADJ. Can you guess – yes, you correctly guessed that the metropolitan magistrate or the judicial magistrate reports to the ASJ and the civil judge reports to the ADJ. The word metropolitan magistrate should not be confused with judicial magistrate. Both words refer to the same position of the judges. In metropolitan areas, a magistrate is called metropolitan magistrate (MM) and in other cities, he is called judicial magistrate (JM). The District Courts of India are the district courts of the national governments in India for each district or for one or more districts together, taking into account the number of cases and the distribution of the population in the district. They administer justice in India at the district level. Judges of lower courts are appointed by the Governor in consultation with the Chief Justice of the State concerned. At least seven years of service as a lawyer at the Bar is a qualification required for direct access to the profession of district judge After a written examination and oral interview by a committee of Supreme Court judges, the appointment of district judges is communicated by the state government.
This is called direct recruitment. District judges are also appointed by promoting court judges subordinate to district courts, provided they have the minimum number of years of service, but unfortunately, entrance examinations for district judges have resulted in judges at lower levels of the judiciary becoming negligent, as their chances of filling positions for the work they do may never lead to promotions. since positions are then filled directly by lawyers. Become a district judge. A district judge or additional judge may be removed from office by the Governor upon confirmation by the panel of the High Court. Each district has a district court and the head of this court is called the district and session judge (DJ). Under the administrative supervision of the district judge, additional sessions of judges (ASJ) and additional district judges (ADJ) work. The main difference between the two is that the ASJ deals with criminal cases and the ADJ with civil cases. It`s a very simple difference, but a lot of people are confused. The judge is the person who renders the verdict. It is in the center of the courtyard.
Each party to the case shall address its arguments, points and explanations to the judge of the court concerned. The district judge is also known as a „metropolitan session judge“ when he or she presides over a district court in a city designated by the state as a „metropolitan area.“ Other courts subordinate to the district court of the metropolitan area are also called „metropolitan“ as a prefix for the common name. An area is designated as a metropolitan area by the government of the relevant state if the population of the area exceeds one million or more. The District Court has jurisdiction over all lower courts in the District in civil and criminal matters. The subordinate courts, on the civil side (in ascending order) are, Junior Civil Judge Court, Principal Junior Civil Judge Court, Senior Civil Judge Court (also called Sub-Court). The subordinate courts, on the criminal side, in ascending order, are the Second Class Court of First Instance, the Court of First Instance and the Chief Justice`s Court of First Instance. The District Court of the Civil Court is tried by the District Judge and the Session Judge. It is the main court of the original civil court alongside the State Supreme Court, which derives its jurisdiction in civil matters mainly from the Code of Civil Procedure. The District Court is also a court of session if it exercises jurisdiction in criminal matters in accordance with the Code of Criminal Procedure. The District Court is headed by a District Judge appointed by the Governor of the State on the advice of the Chief Justice of that Supreme Court. In addition to the district judge, there may be a number of other district judges and deputy district judges, depending on the workload.
The additional district judge and the president of the court are treated in the same way as the district judge and his district court.  The next step in the advancement of a district judge who has served for a sufficient number of years is the position of Supreme Court judge. Judges of the High Court are generally appointed from a group of lawyers practising in the High Court Bar Association and district judges who have served for a sufficient number of years. This has also led to a decline in the effectiveness of district judges, as they have realized that the direct elevation of lawyers to the rank of Supreme Court judges hinders their promotion process for the work they have done for many years. The Court of Session is a court that deals exclusively with criminal cases as a court of appeal or court of first instance. The judge of the sessions is called the judge of the additional sessions (ASJ). What does court of first instance mean? This means that the procedure is conducted by the court. There are so many crimes that can be tried by the session court, and the same is decided depending on the sections involved in the FIR or the case. Appeals from district courts are usually brought before the High Court of the State concerned.
If either party is not satisfied with the High Court`s decision, it may appeal to the Supreme Court within its jurisdiction.  In some cases, Article 136 of the Constitution allows the Supreme Court to appeal directly against a decision of the District Court.  An additional district judge hears civil cases as an appellate court or trial court. The question of whether or not a case can be tried by ADJ is decided on the basis of the financial jurisdiction, which simply means that the monetary value of the dispute or the disputed property, shares, interests, etc., I think there will never be confusion in your mind about the difference between ASJ and ADJ. Both authorities hear appeals and reviews in their criminal and civil matters that are contrary to the order or judgment of the magistrate or magistrate. of the civil judge. There are so many judges in the district court and one of them is called the chief metropolitan magistrate or the chief judicial magistrate. In many districts, magistrates are classified as magistrates (first or second class).
The same type of categorization is also present in many district courts called senior and junior civil judges. The Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or Chief Judicial Magistrate is also responsible for administrative functions and the assignment of cases to other judges. Some criminal or civil cases cannot be heard by a court lower than the district court. The district court therefore initially had jurisdiction over these cases. The District Court or the Additional District Court has jurisdiction both in first instance and on appeal for civil and criminal cases arising from the district. Territorial and financial jurisdiction in civil matters is generally defined in the relevant State decrees on civil courts. In criminal matters, jurisdiction derives exclusively from the Code of Criminal Procedure. According to the Code, the maximum penalty that a district court judge can impose on a convicted person is the death penalty. Are you planning to conduct a business? Well, have some understanding of the hierarchy and functioning of the district court. It is indeed necessary to know the chamber of the district court so that you can take the right measures in your case. The District Court is a judicial institution that operates under the observation and control of the Supreme Court of the State concerned.
The district court is popularly known as the court of first instance. The fundamental characteristic of such a court is to conduct the trial by recording witness statements and gathering documents and evidence from both parties. Therefore, it is also considered a de facto court. Finally, I would like to tell you that this is not a constant and fixed pattern of the position of a judge in the district court. They are often transferred from the magistrate to the civil judge or from the ASJ to the ADJ by order of the High Court. Many judges are also promoted from MM to CMM and also to the positions of ASJ and ADJ. The justice system is very much alive, it monitors and promotes them. Everyone needs to know the hierarchy of judges in the district court. CPC Order 37 – Are you familiar with the functions of the court in summary actions? However, the district judge supervises the additional and deputy district judges, including decisions on the division of labour between them. The district and session judge is often referred to as a „district judge“ when presiding over civil cases and a „sitting judge“ when presiding over criminal cases.
 As the supreme judge at the district level, the district judge also has the power to administer public funds for the development of justice in the district. In the case of a case before the court of first instance, it is necessary to know the functioning and hierarchy of the district court. Application for Special Permission (SLP) before the Supreme Court under Article 136 of the Constitution It is important to mention here that the head of the district court is a district and session judge, popularly known as a DJ.