In the second decade of the 2000s, the slowdown in the growth of the chip building arena was evident. Intel`s production of 10-nanometer chips is one of the most notable examples. Intel was one of the pioneers of the chip industry and the main torchbearer of the law. When Moore`s Law had a two-year growth rate, the company released it in 2019, five years after the previous generation of the 14-nanometer functionality chip. Many innovations by scientists and engineers have supported Moore`s Law since the beginning of the IC era. Some of the key innovations are listed below, as examples of breakthroughs that have advanced the technology of manufacturing integrated circuits and semiconductor devices, allowing the number of transistors to increase by more than seven orders of magnitude in less than five decades. Let`s take a look at two examples that can better demonstrate Moore`s Law: According to Nvidia CEO Jen-Hsun Huang, the end of Moore`s Law is approaching. He said that scaling the processor has significantly increased the number of transistors in recent years. However, there has been no noticeable increase in speed. In comparison, GPUs have gained significantly in speed over the same period. Compared to expectations, progress in CPU performance has been slow in recent years. As a result, Intel has paid more attention to reducing power requirements and improving performance in low-power environments.
Quantum mechanics is a branch of physics that describes the behavior of subatomic particles. Strangely, the effects of quantum mechanics do not occur above a certain size. But when transistors start crossing that threshold, they`re subject to all the weird rules that make quantum mechanics so counterintuitive for most people. Wright`s Law focuses on the cost of technology as more and more units are produced. In particular, it predicts that for any technology or product, every time the cumulative number of units produced doubles, the price of each unit will decrease by a steady percentage. In other words, the more we produce of a particular product, the less that product will cost. This example specifies data from two lists of equal length, representing the year and representative number of transistors on a CPU that year. The above formula of Moore`s Law is implemented in logarithmic form, using a table of years encompassing the data provided. (Since this is a straight line on a logarithmic scale, only two points are really needed.) Once the chips reached the nanoscale range, the price of production became an issue. The wavelengths of visible light, once used to sculpt the characteristics of silicon, became too thick for maximum accuracy, so industry invented new lithography methods using ultraviolet radiation. These new methods made walking smaller and smaller, but they weren`t cheap.
Economists estimate that the price of research that allows us to maintain Moore`s Law has increased 18-fold since the 1970s. Fortunately, this has so far been offset by production figures. Most of this increase in microchip complexity is due to scaling innovation. Now that we have reached the level of nanotechnology, the complexity of scaling is slowing down the progress table of Moore`s Law. The development of the computing architecture reaches molecular limits, and the end result of each new generation of chips shows less dramatic improvements in performance, power reduction and density. Although the improvement in quality-adjusted microprocessor prices continues, the rate of improvement also varies and is not linear on a logarithmic scale. The improvement in microprocessor prices accelerated in the late 1990s, reaching 60% per year (halving every nine months) compared to the typical improvement rate of 30% (halving every two years) in the previous and subsequent years.   In particular, notebook microprocessors improved by 25-35% per year in 2004-2010 and slowed to 15-25% per year in 2010-2013.  Pixels per dollar – Similarly, Barry Hendy of Kodak Australia presented pixels per dollar as the basic measure of the value of a digital camera in order to demonstrate the historical linearity (on a logarithmic scale) of this market and the ability to predict the future price trend of digital cameras, LCD and LED screens and resolution.     Finally, the Intel 80386 had a transistor count of 275,000 in 1985. This became known as the Intel Moore Act.
From the above data, it can be seen that transistor counting has increased over the years with a two-year period.  Including the ability to release significantly better video games. The exponential growth of processor transistors predicted by Moore does not always translate into exponentially higher practical processor performance. Since about 2005-2007, the Dennard scale has ended, so Moore`s Law, although it continued for a few years thereafter, has not produced dividends in the form of performance improvement.   The main reason for the collapse is that power leaks pose greater challenges to smaller sizes and also cause the chip to heat up, posing a risk of thermal runaway and therefore further increasing energy costs.    Various forms of graphene are being studied for graphene electronics, for example graphene nanoribbon transistors have shown promise since their appearance in publications in 2008.